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What are the types of crushers?

Crushers are machines used to reduce the size of rocks, gravel, or other materials in aggregate processing, construction, and mining. Here are the main types of crushers, along with a brief description of each:

Crushers types


1. Jaw Crushers

Jaw crushers use a pair of vertical jaws, one stationary and the other moving, to crush materials. The material is fed into the top of the jaws and is compressed as the movable jaw moves towards the stationary jaw, crushing it into smaller pieces. Jaw crushers are commonly used for primary crushing.

2. Gyratory Crushers

Gyratory crushers consist of a concave surface and a conical head; both surfaces are typically lined with manganese steel. The inner cone is slightly eccentric, which allows the gap between it and the concave to change, crushing the material. They are used for primary or secondary crushing of large volumes of hard materials.

3. Cone Crushers

Cone crushers are similar to gyratory crushers in that they use a mantle that gyrates within a concave bowl. Unlike gyratory crushers, cone crushers are more often used in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary crushing stages. The material is crushed by compression between the mantle and the bowl liner.


4. Impact Crushers

Impact crushers utilize the impact principle. They come in two main types:

Horizontal Shaft Impact (HSI) Crushers: These use hammers or blow bars attached to a horizontal rotor to crush the material as it strikes a stationary anvil or breaker plates.

Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) Crushers: These use a high-speed rotor to project material against a wear-resistant anvil or rock shelf, breaking the material along its natural fissures.

5. Hammer Crushers

Hammer crushers use a high-speed rotating hammer to impact materials, breaking them along their natural lines of weakness. They are typically used for relatively soft or coal-type materials.

6. Roll Crushers

Roll crushers consist of one or more rotating cylinders (rolls) that crush the material by compression and shear forces as it passes between the rolls. They can be used for primary, secondary, or tertiary crushing and are good for achieving a consistent particle size.

7. Gyratory Cone Crushers

A hybrid between gyratory and cone crushers, gyratory cone crushers have a steeper crushing chamber and a more parallel zone between the crushing zones. This design improves the reduction ratio and results in more uniform product sizes.


8. Roller Crushers

Roller crushers are similar to roll crushers but with a smooth roll surface. They are used for fine crushing and work by compressing the material between two cylindrical rollers.

9. Crushers for Specific Applications

Rod Mills: Used for coarse grinding.

Ball Mills: Used for fine grinding and blending.

Pebble Mills: Used where iron contamination must be avoided.

Autogenous (AG) Mills: Use the ore itself as grinding media.

Semi-Autogenous (SAG) Mills: Use a combination of the ore and a small amount of balls (grinding media).

Each type of crusher has its own advantages and is best suited to specific applications and material types.

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